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不定型耐火材料中常用的外加劑有什么

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不定型耐火材料中常用的外加劑有什么

發布日期:2019-09-26 作者: 點擊:



 
外加劑是指不定型耐火材料中除耐火的瘠性料(粒狀和粉狀料)和耐火粘土等塑性料以及結合劑等主要原料以外,在制造過程中摻入的用以改進不定形耐火材料功能的物質。

外加劑的用量均不大,一般不超越結合劑用量的5%。不定形耐火材料中常用的外加劑有減水劑、調凝劑(促凝劑、早強劑和緩凝劑)、加氣劑、膨脹劑、緩蝕劑等。

1、減水劑:在不影響不定形耐火材料可塑性的條件下,減水劑能使單位用水量減少;或在不改動單位用水量的條件下,可改進不定形耐火材料的可塑性,或同時具有以上兩種作用。因而,此種減水劑也常稱為增塑劑。


 在不定形耐火材料中,減水劑主要用作水泥結合的澆注料和水硬性耐火泥的外加劑。 常用的不定形耐火材料減水劑有木質素系減水劑和萘系減水劑。另外,還有水溶性樹脂(密胺樹脂)減水劑和糖密類減水劑、腐植酸鹽減水劑。

2、調凝劑:調凝劑是調理不定形耐火材料凝聚及硬化速度的外加劑。

   
(1)促凝劑與促硬劑(早強劑):促凝劑是能加速凝聚的外加劑,有的也有促硬作用,即導致結合體早期強度增加,但對后期強度可能有積極作用,因而促凝劑也常稱為促硬劑(早強劑)。

   
(2)緩凝劑:為便于施工和儲存,需加少數緩凝劑,以恰當延伸結合劑凝聚硬化時刻。一般來說,這些外加劑雖可使結合劑的凝聚硬化速度怠慢,但并不改動結合劑反應產物的組成或功能。


3、緩蝕劑:緩蝕劑是減緩金屬銹蝕的外加劑。


4、其他外加劑:膨脹劑、助熔劑、加氣劑、泡沫劑等等。

 

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